Dr Ruairidh Battleday and Dr Anna-Katharine Brem from the University of Oxford and Harvard Medical School evaluated all research papers on cognitive enhancement with modafinil from January 1990 to December 2014. The drug modafinil was developed to treat narcolepsy (excessive sleeping), but it is widely used off-licence as a ‘smart drug’ to promote cognitive enhancement, where qualities such as alertness and concentration are desired to assist someone with, for example, exam preparation. Ruairidh McLennan Battleday said: 'This is the first overview of modafinil's actions in non-sleep-deprived individuals since 2008, and so we were able to include a lot of does provigil improve memory recent data. Very encouragingly, the 70% of studies that looked at the effects of modafinil on mood and side effects showed very little overall effect, although a couple reported insomnia, headache, stomach ache or nausea (which were also reported in the placebo group). A ‘smart drug’ taken by students to boost their performance really does work, according to a new study. Previous ethical discussion of such agents has tended to assume extravagant effects before it was clear that there were any. Until now, there has been a lack of clear evidence over whether it can actually boost concerta or provigil concentration and alertness. Professor Goodwin said there should be a society-wide debate on how modafinil should be licenced and regulated, as well as what universities should do about its use. We cannot know either if demand for modafinil in the same societies will actually be significant, whether society will be more accepting and how regulation will then be framed. In other words, it's the first real example of a 'smart drug', which can genuinely help, for example, with exam preparation. Over the years, universities have discussed how best to respond to the use of smart drugs, and some have suggested Olympic-style doping tests for students sitting exams. The non-medical use of mind altering drugs has hitherto obtaining provigil broadly conflicted with the work ethic of many societies, has been very popular but leads to a range of demonstrable harms. Some reported insomnia, headache, stomach ache or nausea, but these side-effects were also seen in the placebo group who weren’t taking the drug. If correct, get high provigil the present update means the ethical debate is real: how should we classify, condone or condemn a drug that improves human performance in the absence of pre-existing cognitive impairment? Modafinil is a prescription-only stimulant used by doctors to treat patients suffering from the sleeping disorder narcolepsy. And the use of modafinil is most widespread at Oxford University, where a quarter of students have reported to have used it. What emerged was that the longer and more complex the task tested, the more consistently modafinil conferred cognitive benefits. He said: ‘As the authors point out, modafinil is not licenced for use as a "smart drug", and it will not be because it would be outside the current terms of reference of regulatory bodies. Modafinil, prescribed as a narcolepsy drug, enhances thinking skills, including planning and decision making It is the first ‘smart drug’ found to actually work, and appears to have few serious side effects, they added. ' 'Smart drugs' really DO work: Pills taken by a fifth of university students found to improve memory and learning - raising 'serious ethical questions' • Modafinil is used to treat narcolepsy but is taken off-label as a 'smart drug' • Until now there has been a lack of clear evidence over its effectiveness • New study found it really does work to boost brain power and thinking • Raises ethical questions over whether it should be banned or regulated By Published: 06:35 EDT, 20 August 2015 | Updated: 10:14 EDT, 20 August 2015 A ‘smart drug’ taken by students to boost their performance really does work, scientists have found. Now, a new systematic review, published online in the peer-reviewed journal shows that modafinil does indeed confer provigil paranoia significant cognitive benefits in this group, at least on a particular subset of tasks. Interestingly, we found that the type of test used to assess modafinil's cognitive benefits has changed over the last few decades. Thus, the authors say that 'modafinil may well deserve the title of the first well-validated pharmaceutical agent'. Past studies on sleep-deprived individuals have shown a strong positive effect of modafinil on these functions, but there has been less attention and scientific consensus on the drug’s overall effectiveness as a cognitive enhancer in people that are not sleep-deprived – presumably the majority of people taking it. Modafinil pills are being sold for as little as 50p each and have been proven to improve memory by 10 per cent. The findings raise serious ethical questions about whether modafinil should be ‘classified, condoned or condemned’, scientists said. Professor Guy Goodwin, President of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP) said: ‘This overview suggests that, on current evidence, modafinil enhances cognition independent of its known effects in sleep disordered populations. It made no difference to working memory, or flexibility of thought, but did improve decision making and planning, they found. In the past, people were using very basic tests of cognition, developed for neurologically-impaired individuals. Modafinil made no difference to working memory, abc report on provigil or flexibility of thought, but did improve decision-making and planning.